What are paraffins naphthenes and aromatics?
What are paraffins naphthenes and aromatics?
Paraffins – straight chain of saturated hydrocarbons. Isoparaffins – branched chain of saturated hydrocarbons. Aromatics – unsaturated hydrocarbons containing one or more benzene rings. Naphthenes – cyclic chain of saturated hydrocarbons.
What is the main difference between aromatics and naphthenes?
The key difference between naphthenes and aromatics is that the naphthenes have only single bonds between carbon atoms whereas the aromatics have both single bonds and double bonds between carbon atoms. We call naphthenes “cycloalkanes”. These are cyclic aliphatic hydrocarbon compounds.
What are aromatics olefins?
Oil refineries produce olefins and aromatics by fluid catalytic cracking of petroleum fractions. Chemical plants produce olefins by steam cracking of natural gas liquids like ethane and propane. Aromatics are produced by catalytic reforming of naphtha. Olefins includes ethene, propene, butenes and butadiene.
What are the uses of naphthenes?
Naphthenes are an important component of liquid petroleum refinery products. Most of the heavier boiling point complex residues are cycloalkanes. Naphthenic crude oil is more readily converted into gasoline than paraffin-rich crudes are.
What is the difference between olefins and aromatics?
Petrochemicals, produced from petroleum, can be classified as olefins and aromatics . Olefins include ethylene, propylene, and butadiene which are raw materials for making plastics. Aromatics include benzene, toluene, and xylene which are raw materials for making dyes and synthetic detergents.
What is the difference between paraffins and olefins?
Olefins are alkenes while paraffins are alkanes. Therefore, the key difference between olefins and paraffins is that olefins essentially contain one or more double bonds between carbon atoms, whereas paraffins do not contain any double or triple bond between carbon atoms.
Which of the following is naphthenes?
Cycloalkanes are called naphthenes.
Which hydrocarbon is known as olefins?
olefin, also called alkene, compound made up of hydrogen and carbon that contains one or more pairs of carbon atoms linked by a double bond. Olefins are examples of unsaturated hydrocarbons (compounds that contain only hydrogen and carbon and at least one double or triple bond).
What is aromatic crude oil?
Aromatic hydrocarbons are an important series of hydrocarbons found in almost every petroleum mixture from any part of the world. Aromatics are cyclic but unsaturated hydrocarbons with alternating double bonds (Figure 1.12). The name “aromatic” refers to the fact that such hydrocarbons are commonly fragrant compounds.
Are paraffins aromatics?
These compounds, like the paraffins, are saturated and very stable. They make up a second primary constituent of crude oil. Aromatic hydrocarbons are also cyclic but are derivatives of benzene. Crude oils tend to be a mixture of paraffins-naphthenes-aromatics, with paraffins and naphthenes the predominant species.
Is cyclohexane a paraffin?
Ethylene is an alkene. Cyclohexane is a cycloalkane. Neither of these molecules are paraffins.
Why unsaturated hydrocarbons are called olefins?
Unsaturated hydrocarbons are commonly referred to as olefins because ethylene, a gaseous unsaturated hydrocarbon, was found to react with chlorine and bromine to yield oily products. Its trivial name “olefiant gas” or oil-forming gas gave rise to the term olefin which has come to denote compounds related to ethylene.
How are aromatics separated from olefins?
Four packed silica columns in series are used to isolate the aromatics and provide ring number distribution. In addition, the silica columns provide separation of paraffins from the coeluting olefins and naphthenics. The olefins are trapped on a silver-loaded strong cation-exchange silica gel column and removed by back-flushing.
What is the difference between paraffinic oil and naphthenic oil?
The aniline point of paraffinic oil is much higher than a naphthenic meaning the solvency is worse. Paraffinic oil has a high viscosity index which is good for engine oil but bad for transformers. The naphthenic oil will reach a lower viscosity meaning more oil circulation in the transformer and better cooling.
How to identify naphthenes in gasoline and jet fuel?
A method that uses supercritical fluid chromatography (SFC) with flame-ionization detection (FID) to determine naphthenes (cycloparaffins), paraffins, olefins, and aromatics in gasoline and JP-4 jet fuel is developed. Four packed silica columns in series are used to isolate the aromatics and provide ring number distribution.
What is the difference between alkenes and paraffins?
The term ‘olefins’, also known as alkenes, are a large number of compounds that contain carbon and hydrogen and have at least one double bond in their structure. Paraffins, also known as alkanes, are a large number of compounds that contain carbon and hydrogen and have single bonds only (fully saturated).