What is the cause of typhoid and paratyphoid?

Typhoid and paratyphoid fever are illnesses caused by the bacteria Salmonella Typhi and Salmonella Paratyphi. These fevers are mainly seen in people who have travelled overseas to places with poor sanitation, such as parts of Africa, Asia, South and Central America and the Middle East.

What is typhoid fever in microbiology?

Typhoid is caused by the bacterium Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar Typhi growing in the intestines, peyers patches, mesenteric lymph nodes, spleen, liver, gallbladder, bone marrow and blood. Typhoid is spread by eating or drinking food or water contaminated with the feces of an infected person.

What is typhoid and types?

Typhoid fever and paratyphoid fever are similar diseases caused by bacteria. Salmonella Typhi bacteria cause typhoid fever. Salmonella Paratyphi bacteria cause paratyphoid fever. People infected with these bacteria can spread them to others.

How is Paratyphi diagnosed?

The symptoms of paratyphoid fever usually begin 6–30 days after exposure, and then a gradual onset of a high fever occurs over several days [22]. Headaches, loss of appetite, and weakness also commonly occur, and a skin rash with rose-colored spots manifests in some individuals.

What tests confirm typhoid fever?

Typhidot (or Widal Test) is a rapid serological test for the diagnosis of typhoid fever. Typhidot test is a dot ELISA kit that detects IgM and IgG antibodies against the outer membrane protein (OMP) of the Salmonella typhi.

What is typhoid test?

What are the stages of typhoid?

What are the different stages of typhoid fever?

  • The first stage. In this stage, the patient experiences some of the preliminary symptoms of typhoid such as dry cough, indolence or headache.
  • The second stage. During this stage, fever runs high and the stomach becomes bloated.
  • The third stage.
  • The fourth stage.

What test detects typhoid?

Current diagnosis for typhoid is still via the method of culture and antibody detection by means of the Widal test. Isolation of Salmonella typhi has remained as the gold standard, with culture the bone marrow aspirate or a combination of specimens from blood, stool or urine.

What is IgM in typhoid test?

What does typhidot igm positive mean? The Typhidot test is expected to become positive within 2-3 days of infection. The test is based on the presence of specific IgM and IgG antibodies. IgM shows recent infection whereas IgG signifies remote infection.