Can HCC be diagnosed on ultrasound?

Ultrasonography (US) is a major, sustainable hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) surveillance method as it provides inexpensive, real-time, and noninvasive detection. Since US findings are based on pathological features, knowledge of pathological features is essential for delivering a correct US diagnosis.

What does HCC look like on ultrasound?

Hepatocellular carcinoma does not have a characteristic appearance at US. The lesions are typically hypoechoic, but they can be hyperechoic or have mixed echogenicity. The majority of nodules that measure less than 1 cm are not hepatocellular carcinoma (8).

What does HCC look like on CT scan?

On unenhanced images, the appearance of HCC is variable and depends on the surrounding liver parenchyma and etiology of chronic liver disease. Most often, HCCs appear hypodense or isodense (Fig. 1) to the liver on unenhanced images but may appear hyperdense when they develop in a background of fatty liver.

What causes hepatocellular carcinoma?

Hepatocellular Carcinoma (HCC) is the major form of liver cancer. Risk factors for HCC include chronic HBV (hepatitis B virus) and HCV (hepatitis C virus) infections, autoimmune hepatitis, chronic alcohol use, obesity and diabetes mellitus etc [2].

Can HCC be misdiagnosed?

Although diagnostic accuracy of imaging technique for HCC has been improved, misdiagnosis is encountered not uncommonly in real clinical practice. Both false positive diagnosis and false negative diagnosis cause serious problem of patient-doctor relationship.

Is HCC hypoechoic?

It is concluded that most small HCCs evolve progressively from hypoechoic to isoechoic and then to inhomogeneously hyperechoic patterns as they grow; a few HCCs have diffusely high echogenicity from the beginning and retain the same features thereafter.

Why does HCC have washout?

During the portal venous phase of contrast enhancement, the liver con- tinues to enhance, and the lack of portal ve- nous blood supply to HCCs results in the char- acteristic washout in the portal venous phase and especially in the delayed phase.

Can hepatocellular carcinoma be cured?

If caught early, it can sometimes be cured with surgery or transplant. In more advanced cases it can’t be cured, but treatment and support can help you live longer and better.

What is the imaging for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC)?

Hepatocellular carcinoma may or may not take up hepatocyte-specific contrast media, depending on the volume of functioning hepatocytes within the tumor (ie, tumor grade). Diffusion-weighted imaging provides information on tissue cellularity.

What is hepatocellular carcinoma?

Hepatocellular carcinoma is a malignancy that predominantly occurs in the setting of cirrhosis. Its incidence is rising worldwide. Hepatocellular carcinoma differs from most malignancies because it is commonly diagnosed on the basis of imaging features alone, without histologic confirmation.

What is radiologic stage a hepatocellular carcinoma?

The mass was classified as radiologic BCLC stage A because it was a solitary hepatocellular carcinoma and greater than 2 cm in size. The patient underwent orthotopic liver transplantation. (e) Hepatocellular carcinoma (arrow) is clearly evident in the excised specimen, as shown in the photograph.

What are the signs and symptoms of hepatocellular carcinoma?

Hepatocellular carcinomas can have a variety of appearances: Hepatocellular carcinoma receives most of its blood supply from branches of the hepatic artery, accounting for its characteristic enhancement pattern: early arterial enhancement with early “washout.”