Why is Keratinized gingiva important?

Keratinized gingiva provides stabilization to the periodontium, protects the teeth and implants from masticatory and external trauma, and provides a barrier to inflammatory infiltrate (Paiva, 2012).

What is Keratinized gingiva?

The keratinized gingival is the part of the oral mucosa which covers the gingiva and hard palate. It extends from the free gingival margin to the mucogingival junction and consists of the free gingiva as well as the attached gingiva.

How do you increase Keratinized gingiva?

One of the following techniques was utilized to increase the amount of keratinized tissue: apically positioned flap, pedicle graft, connective tissue graft, or free gingival graft.

What is non Keratinized gingiva?

The para keratinized gingiva includes the marginal gingiva and portions of the outer gingival epithelium. The non keratinized portion of gingiva includes the gingival col, junctional epithelium and sulcular epithelium.

What happens during the process of Keratinization?

Keratinization refers to the cytoplasmic events that occur in the cytoplasm of epidermal keratinocytes during their terminal differentiation. It involves the formation of keratin polypeptides and their polymerization into keratin intermediate filaments (tonofilaments).

What is lack of attached gingiva?

Lack of attached gingiva preventing adequate plaque control, especially in areas in which the marginal tissue is composed of alveolar mucosa, as these can become chronically inflamed, and may further be compromised by a frenum pull or shallow vestibule.

How can I improve my attached gingiva?


  1. Free gingival autograft.
  2. Free connective tissue autograft.
  3. Pedicle autografts: • Laterally (horizontally) positioned flap • Coronally positioned flap; includes semilunar pedicle (Tarnow)
  4. Subepithelial connective tissue graft (Langer)
  5. Guided tissue regeneration.

How do you increase the width of an attached gingiva?

A variety of surgical techniques has been introduced to increase the width of AG. The most commonly documented techniques are augmentation using free gingival grafts,[3] connective tissue gingival grafts,[4] and apically repositioned flap.

What is keratinized and Nonkeratinized?

The key difference between keratinized and nonkeratinized epithelium is that keratinized epithelium is impervious to water while nonkeratinized epithelium is pervious to water. The surface cell layer of keratinized epithelium consists of dead cells and forms an effective barrier. Moreover, it is impervious to water.

Is the marginal gingiva keratinized?

Oral mucosa Most of the gingiva is firmly attached to the supporting bone, with a slightly more mobile (usually non-keratinized) area, termed the free (marginal) gingiva, which is the prominent area close to the tooth.

Does keratinized gingiva cause gingival recession and inflammation?

According to Wennstrom, a minimal amount of keratinized gingiva does not necessarily lead to gingival recession and inflammation (Wennstom, 2012). He stated that the narrow zone of keratinized gingiva located apically to an area of recession is the result of recession, not the cause (Wennstom, 2012).

Is keratinized mucosa/gingiva associated with peri-implant disease?

Significance of keratinized mucosa/gingiva on peri-implant and adjacent periodontal conditions in erratic maintenance compliers The presence of <2 mm of KM around dental implants in erratic maintenance compliers seems to be associated with peri-implant diseases.

How much keratinized gingiva is adequate for gingival margin stabilization?

Since the early 1970s, following the work of Lang and Löe, 1 experts have agreed that 2 mm of keratinized gingiva will provide adequate stabilization for gingival margins.

Are freefree gingival grafts a practical treatment option for keratinized mucosa?

Free gingival grafts for implants exhibiting a lack of keratinized mucosa: Extended follow-up of a randomized controlled trial FGGs can be a practical treatment option to maintain CBL around implants with limited KM. FGGs can be a practical treatment option to maintain CBL around implants with limited KM.