What does the anterior thalamic radiations do?

The ATR is a WM fiber bundle that connects the dorsomedial thalamic nucleus to the prefrontal cortex (mainly the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex) through the anterior limb of the internal capsule, and is involved in executive functions and planning complex behaviors.

What is thalamic radiation?

Thalamocortical radiations are the nerve fibers between the thalamus and the cerebral cortex. Functionally, thalamocortical radiations, also called thalamocortical fibers, relay sensory or motor information from the thalamus to distinct areas of the cerebral cortex through relay neurons.

How does radiation affect the pituitary gland?

It may damage some normal brain tissue, particularly near the pituitary gland, which could affect mental function years later. The optic nerves may be damaged, causing vision changes. The radiation may increase the risk of developing a brain tumor later in life, but this risk is low in adults.

What is superior thalamic radiation?

The term superior thalamic radiations refers to fiber pathways that connect the ventral nuclear group of thalamus with the precentral gyrus and the postcentral gyrus through the superior thalamic peduncle, the posterior limb of the internal capsule and other parts of the cerebral white matter ( Carpenter-1983 ).

What is the role of thalamus?

While the thalamus is classically known for its roles as a sensory relay in visual, auditory, somatosensory, and gustatory systems, it also has significant roles in motor activity, emotion, memory, arousal, and other sensorimotor association functions.

Can you treat a pituitary tumor with radiation?

Radiation therapy can be used in one of several ways for pituitary tumors. It may be recommended after pituitary tumor surgery to prevent regrowth of a tumor. Radiation may also be used as the sole treatment if the tumor cannot be removed surgically, or if the tumor regrows after surgery.

What is posterior thalamic radiation?

Acronym: The term posterior thalamic radiations refers to fiber pathways that connect the caudal parts of the thalamus with the occipital lobe and the parietal lobe through the posterior thalamic peduncle, the posterior limb of the internal capsule and other parts of the cerebral white matter ( Carpenter-1983 ).

What neurons are in the thalamus?

Thalamic interneurons were identified using GABA immunolabeling. The C57BL/6 dLGN contains ∼21,200 neurons, while LP complex contains ∼31,000 total neurons. The dLGN and LP are the only nuclei of the mouse dorsal thalamus containing substantial numbers GABA-immunoreactive interneurons.

Can radiotherapy cause damage to the pituitary gland?

There is good evidence that the earliest damage to the hypothalamic-pituitary axis after external radiotherapy is at the level of the hypothalamus. However, patients who undergo pituitary ablation with interstitial radiotherapy or heavy particle beams are likely to sustain direct damage to the pituitary.

What is the prognosis of radiation-induced anterior pituitary hormone deficiency?

Radiation-induced anterior pituitary hormone deficiencies are irreversible and progressive. Regular testing is mandatory to ensure timely diagnosis and early hormone replacement therapy. Publication types Review MeSH terms

Where are the thalamic nuclei located in the brain?

These three parts contains the larger groups of thalamic nuclei. Other smaller groups are located on the medial and lateral surfaces of the thalamus as well as within the internal medullary lamina. The thalamus is chiefly supplied by small perforating end-arteries arising from the posterior cerebral artery.

What is the anterior side of the thalamus?

anterior: the anterior pole of the thalamus forms the posterior wall of the interventricular foramen. The thalamus is surrounded by two thin layers of white matter. On its superior surface, it is covered by the stratum zonale and on its lateral surface by the external medullary lamina.